Decimal    Keyword                Protocol                        References


     0            HOPOPT         IPv6 Hop-by-Hop Option                    [RFC1883]
     1            ICMP              Internet Control Message                  [RFC792]
     2            IGMP              Internet Group Management               [RFC1112]
     3            GGP               Gateway-to-Gateway                        [RFC823]
     4            IP                   IP in IP (encapsulation)                    [RFC2003]
     5            ST                  Stream                                            [RFC1190,RFC1819]
     6            TCP                Transmission Control                       [RFC793]
     7            CBT                CBT                                               [Ballardie]
     8            EGP                Exterior Gateway Protocol                 [RFC888,DLM1]
     9            IGP                 any private interior gateway               [IANA]
                                        (used by Cisco for their IGRP)
    10            BBN-RCC-MON BBN RCC Monitoring                      [SGC]
    11            NVP-II             Network Voice Protocol                    [RFC741,SC3]
    12            PUP                PUP                                               [PUP,XEROX]
    13            ARGUS           ARGUS                                            [RWS4]
    14            EMCON          EMCON                                           [BN7]
    15            XNET             Cross Net Debugger                          [IEN158,JFH2]
    16            CHAOS          Chaos                                              [NC3]
    17            UDP               User Datagram                                  [RFC768,JBP]
    18            MUX              Multiplexing                                      [IEN90,JBP]
    19            DCN-MEAS    DCN Measurement Subsystems           [DLM1]
    20            HMP              Host Monitoring                                [RFC869,RH6]
    21            PRM              Packet Radio Measurement               [ZSU]
    22            XNS-IDP        XEROX NS IDP                                 [ETHERNET,XEROX]
    23            TRUNK-1        Trunk-1                                           [BWB6]
    24            TRUNK-2        Trunk-2                                           [BWB6]
    25            LEAF-1          Leaf-1                                             [BWB6]
    26            LEAF-2          Leaf-2                                             [BWB6]
    27            RDP              Reliable Data Protocol                        [RFC908,RH6]
    28            IRTP             Internet Reliable Transaction               [RFC938,TXM]
    29            ISO-TP4        ISO Transport Protocol Class 4           [RFC905,RC77]
    30            NETBLT         Bulk Data Transfer Protocol                [RFC969,DDC1]
    31            MFE-NSP      MFE Network Services Protocol          [MFENET,BCH2]
    32            MERIT-INP    MERIT Internodal Protocol                  [HWB]
    33            DCCP           Datagram Congestion Control Protocol [RFC-ietf-dccp-spec-11.txt]
    34            3PC              Third Party Connect Protocol              [SAF3]
    35            IDPR             Inter-Domain Policy Routing Protocol   [MXS1]
    36            XTP              XTP                                                [GXC]
    37            DDP              Datagram Delivery Protocol                 [WXC]
    38            IDPR-CMTP   IDPR Control Message Transport Proto [MXS1]
    39            TP++             TP++ Transport Protocol                    [DXF]
    40            IL                 IL Transport Protocol                         [Presotto]
    41            IPv6              Ipv6                                                [Deering]   
    42            SDRP            Source Demand Routing Protocol       [DXE1]
    43            IPv6-Route     Routing Header for IPv6                     [Deering]
    44            IPv6-Frag      Fragment Header for IPv6                    [Deering]
    45            IDRP             Inter-Domain Routing Protocol            [Sue Hares]
    46            RSVP           Reservation Protocol                          [Bob Braden]
    47            GRE             General Routing Encapsulation          [Tony Li]
    48            DSR             Dynamic Source Routing Protocol       [RFC4728]
    49            BNA             BNA                                                [Gary Salamon]
    50            ESP             Encap Security Payload                    [RFC2406]
    51            AH              Authentication Header                        [RFC2402]
    52            I-NLSP        Integrated Net Layer Security  TUBA     [GLENN]
    53            SWIPE         IP with Encryption                              [JI6]
    54            NARP          NBMA Address Resolution Protocol      [RFC1735]
    55            MOBILE       IP Mobility                                         [Perkins]
    56            TLSP           Transport Layer Security Protocol         [Oberg]
                                      using Kryptonet key management
    57            SKIP            SKIP                                                 [Markson]
    58            IPv6-ICMP   ICMP for IPv6                                     [RFC1883]
    59            IPv6-NoNxt   No Next Header for IPv6                       [RFC1883]
    60            IPv6-Opts    Destination Options for IPv6                  [RFC1883]
    61                              any host internal protocol                     [IANA]
    62            CFTP          CFTP                                                 [CFTP,HCF2]
    63                              any local network                               [IANA]
    64            SAT-EXPAK   SATNET and Backroom EXPAK           [SHB]
    65            KRYPTOLAN   Kryptolan                                         [PXL1]
    66            RVD            MIT Remote Virtual Disk Protocol          [MBG]
    67            IPPC           Internet Pluribus Packet Core               [SHB]
    68                              any distributed file system                    [IANA]
    69            SAT-MON    SATNET Monitoring                             [SHB]
    70            VISA           VISA Protocol                                     [GXT1]
    71            IPCV           Internet Packet Core Utility                   [SHB]
    72            CPNX         Computer Protocol Network Executive    [DXM2]
    73            CPHB         Computer Protocol Heart Beat               [DXM2]
    74            WSN           Wang Span Network                            [VXD]
    75            PVP            Packet Video Protocol                         [SC3]
    76            BR-SAT-MON  Backroom SATNET Monitoring          [SHB]
    77            SUN-ND      SUN ND PROTOCOL-Temporary            [WM3]
    78            WB-MON     WIDEBAND Monitoring                         [SHB]
    79            WB-EXPAK   WIDEBAND EXPAK                             [SHB]
    80            ISO-IP         ISO Internet Protocol                           [MTR]
    81            VMTP          VMTP                                               [DRC3]
    82            SECURE-VMTP SECURE-VMTP                            [DRC3]
    83            VINES          VINES                                              [BXH]
    84            TTP             TTP                                                  [JXS]
    85            NSFNET-IGP  NSFNET-IGP                                    [HWB]
    86            DGP            Dissimilar Gateway Protocol                [DGP,ML109]
    87            TCF            TCF                                                  [GAL5]
    88            EIGRP         EIGRP                                               [CISCO,GXS]
    89            OSPFIGP     OSPFIGP                                           [RFC1583,JTM4]
    90            Sprite-RPC  Sprite RPC Protocol                            [SPRITE,BXW]
    91            LARP           Locus Address Resolution Protocol     [BXH]
    92            MTP            Multicast Transport Protocol                [SXA]
    93            AX.25          AX.25 Frames                                    [BK29]        
    94            IPIP             IP-within-IP Encapsulation Protocol     [JI6]
    95            MICP          Mobile Internetworking Control Pro.      [JI6]
    96            SCC-SP      Semaphore Communications Sec. Pro.  [HXH]    
    97            ETHERIP      Ethernet-within-IP Encapsulation        [RFC3378]
    98            ENCAP        Encapsulation Header                        [RFC1241,RXB3]
    99                              any private encryption scheme            [IANA]
   100            GMTP        GMTP                                               [RXB5]
   101            IFMP          Ipsilon Flow Management Protocol       [Hinden]
   102            PNNI          PNNI over IP                                      [Callon]
   103            PIM           Protocol Independent Multicast            [Farinacci]
   104            ARIS         ARIS                                                  [Feldman]
   105            SCPS        SCPS                                                [Durst]
   106            QNX          QNX                                                  [Hunter]
   107            A/N           Active Networks                                 [Braden]
   108            IPComp      IP Payload Compression Protocol        [RFC2393]
   109            SNP          Sitara Networks Protocol                     [Sridhar]
   110            Compaq-Peer Compaq Peer Protocol                    [Volpe]
   111            IPX-in-IP   IPX in IP                                            [Lee]
   112            VRRP       Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol       [RFC3768]
   113            PGM        PGM Reliable Transport Protocol           [Speakman]
   114                          any 0-hop protocol                                [IANA]
   115            L2TP        Layer Two Tunneling Protocol               [Aboba]
   116            DDX         D-II Data Exchange (DDX)                    [Worley]
   117            IATP        Interactive Agent Transfer Protocol         [Murphy]
   118            STP         Schedule Transfer Protocol                   [JMP]
   119            SRP        SpectraLink Radio Protocol                    [Hamilton]
   120            UTI         UTI                                                      [Lothberg]
   121            SMP       Simple Message Protocol                      [Ekblad]
   122            SM         SM                                                     [Crowcroft]
   123            PTP        Performance Transparency Protocol       [Welzl]
   124            ISIS over IPv4                                                    [Przygienda]
   125            FIRE                                                                 [Partridge]
   126            CRTP      Combat Radio Transport Protocol           [Sautter]
   127            CRUDP    Combat Radio User Datagram                [Sautter]
   128            SSCOPMCE                                                      [Waber]
   129            IPLT                                                                 [Hollbach]
   130            SPS        Secure Packet Shield                           [McIntosh]
   131            PIPE       Private IP Encapsulation within IP          [Petri]
   132            SCTP      Stream Control Transmission Protocol    [Stewart]
   133            FC          Fibre Channel                                     [Rajagopal]
   134            RSVP-E2E-IGNORE                                           [RFC3175]
   135            Mobility Header                                                 [RFC3775]
   136            UDPLite                                                            [RFC3828]
   137            MPLS-in-IP                                                      [RFC4023]
   138-252                    Unassigned                                        [IANA]
   253                          Use for experimentation and testing       [RFC3692]
   254                          Use for experimentation and testing       [RFC3692]
   255                          Reserved                                           [IANA]

위의 수 많은 프로토콜 번호들을 모두 기억할 필요는 없다. 하지만 다음 3개는 꼭 기억해 두자.

 1       ICMP
 6       TCP
17       UDP


출처: http://proneer.tistory.com/entry/프로토콜-번호Protocol-Number
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김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret



http://blog.gtuhl.com/2009/03/11/monitoring-dell-perc5-and-perc6-disks-in-arch-linux/

위 링크에서 제공하는 rpm 파일을 설치한다.

http://www.lsi.com/DistributionSystem/AssetDocument/4.00.11_Linux_MegaCLI.zip

cd /opt/MegaRAID/MegaCli
./MegaCli64 -AdpAllInfo -a0


이 정보중에 아래 부분을 검색해서 확인하면 된다.

Physical Devices  : 2
  Disks           : 2
  Critical Disks  : 0
  Failed Disks    : 0




저작자 표시 비영리 변경 금지
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김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret





cat employees.txt

byoungguk:100:server
gildong:200:sales


cat read-employees.sh

#!/bin/sh
IFS=:
echo "employee names:"
echo "---------------"
while read name empid dept
do
     echo "$name is part of $dept department"
done < ~/employees.txt




./read-employees.sh
employee names:
---------------
byoungguk is part of server department
gildong is part of sales department






저작자 표시 비영리 동일 조건 변경 허락
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유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret



perl -pi -e 's/\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-\-//g' 파일이름


import 하는쪽에 --force 옵션 사용





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유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret

queue-fix

서버관리 2015.11.27 11:02
가끔 메일로그를 확인해보면 아래와 같은 메시지가 계속 남습니다.
.....
@40000000456f6ccd287bee04 warning: unable to stat mess/7/7
@40000000456f6ccd287c018c warning: unable to stat mess/8/8
@40000000456f6ccd287c112c warning: unable to stat mess/9/9
@40000000456f6ccd2880f714 warning: unable to stat mess/10/10
@40000000456f6ccd28810e84 warning: unable to stat mess/11/11
@40000000456f6ccd2881220c warning: unable to stat mess/12/12
@40000000456f6ccd288131ac warning: unable to stat mess/13/13
@40000000456f6ccd28814534 warning: unable to stat mess/14/14
@40000000456f6ccd288154d4 warning: unable to stat mess/15/15
@40000000456f6ccd28816474 warning: unable to stat mess/16/16
.....
이럴 경우에는 queue 디렉토리를 새로 생성해주면 됩니다.

qmail 큐 디렉토리를 새로 만들거나 복구 하려면 queue-fix를 사용합니다.

[root@ns src]#wget http://www.netmeridian.com/e-huss/queue-fix.tar.gz
[root@ns src]#tar xvzfp queue-fix.tar.gz
[root@ns src]#wget http://qmail.kldp.org/src/patches/glibc-2.3.1/queue-fix-1.4.diff
[root@ns src]#cd queue-fix-1.4
[root@ns queue-fix-1.4]# cat ../queue-fix-1.4.diff | patch -p1
[root@ns queue-fix-1.4]#make

glibc-2.3.1이상에서는 queue-fix-1.4.diff 패치를 적용 후 컴파일 합니다.

큐 디렉토리를 새로 만들려면 qmail을 종료 시킨후,

[root@ns queue-fix-1.4]rm -rf /var/qmail/queue/
[root@ns queue-fix-1.4]./queue-fix  /var/qmail/queue

그러면 큐디렉토리가 생성이 되고 큐메일을 실행해주면 됩니다.


queue-fix.c 파일에 보면

#define SPLIT_NUM 23


있는데.. 기본이 0~22까지 23개가 생성이 되고..

이걸 늘려서 큐 재생성해주면 원하는 만큼 증가 가능함.


- qmail-showctl 을 통하여 다양한 설정 가능한 값들을 확인하여 조절가능한 값이 있는지 체크
- timeoutremote 와 같은 옵션으로 외부로 발송되는 메일이 일정시간 이상 큐에 머물지 않도록 하거나
- concurrencyremote,concurrencylocal,queuelifetime 등과 같은 값을 조절해 보거나 doublebounceto 설정
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유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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  1. http://qmail.kldp.net/src/errno-patchs/queue-fix-1.4.diff

    diff -uNr queue-fix-1.4.org/error.h queue-fix-1.4/error.h
    --- queue-fix-1.4.org/error.h 1999-03-15 04:51:04.000000000 +0900
    +++ queue-fix-1.4/error.h 2003-09-15 11:40:27.000000000 +0900
    @@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
    #ifndef ERROR_H
    #define ERROR_H

    -extern int errno;
    +#include <errno.h>

    extern int error_intr;
    extern int error_nomem;
secret

hardening_linux_web_servers.pdf


간단히 뽑아서 정리해 보았습니다.



Security is a process, not a result.

netstat

[root@test1 ~]# netstat -l -n -p -t -u -w
Active Internet connections (only servers)
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address               Foreign Address             State       PID/Program name  
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:3306                0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1736/mysqld        
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:21                  0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      1603/proftpd: (acce
tcp        0      0 :::80                       :::*                        LISTEN      3102/httpd         
tcp        0      0 :::22                       :::*                        LISTEN      1549/sshd          
udp        0      0 0.0.0.0:68                  0.0.0.0:*                               1439/dhclient      

(-l is for listening, -n is for IP information and -p is for program/PID information, -t, -u, -w are for tcp,
udp and raw socket connections. By setting these flags, I disable displaying information about unix sockets
which are not relevant to network security, as they are only used for interprocess communication on the
current host.)




nmap


[root@test1 ~]# nmap -P0 -O 172.16.98.1

Starting Nmap 4.11 ( http://www.insecure.org/nmap/ ) at 2008-12-31 13:19 KST
Interesting ports on 172.16.98.1:
Not shown: 1679 closed ports
PORT   STATE SERVICE
22/tcp open  ssh
MAC Address: 00:50:56:xx:xx:xx (VMWare)
Device type: general purpose
Running: Linux 2.4.X|2.5.X|2.6.X
OS details: Linux 2.4.0 - 2.5.20, Linux 2.4.7 - 2.6.11

Nmap finished: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 2.649 seconds



iptables

방화벽 설정 룰 보기
[root@test1 ~]# iptables --list
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        


초기화
$iptables -F
  or
$iptables -F INPUT
$iptables -F FORWARD
$iptables -F OUTPUT



방화벽 설정
# Enable stateful filtering allowing connections
# initiated on host be allowed.
iptables -A INPUT -m state --state \
         RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A OUTPUT -m state --state \
     NEW,RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
# Allow Incoming SSH, HTTP, HTTPS
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp \
    --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp \
          --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp \
          --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
# Allow Everything from the local host
iptables -A INPUT -s 127.0.0.1 -j ACCEPT
# Block Outgoing SSH connections
iptables -A OUTPUT -p tcp -m tcp \
          --dport 22 -j DROP
# Block Everything else
iptables -A INPUT -j DROP
iptables -A FORWARD -j DROP

[root@test1 ~]# iptables --list
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:ssh
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:http
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:https
ACCEPT     all  --  localhost.localdomain  anywhere           
DROP       all  --  anywhere             anywhere           

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        
DROP       all  --  anywhere             anywhere           

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination        
ACCEPT     all  --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW,RELATED,ESTABLISHED
DROP       tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:ssh



방화벽 설정 저장
[root@test1 ~]# iptables-save > /root/firewall

[root@test1 ~]# cat /root/firewall
# Generated by iptables-save v1.3.5 on Wed Dec 31 13:58:13 2008
*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT [14712:1529876]
:FORWARD ACCEPT [0:0]
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [12518:981746]
-A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s 127.0.0.1 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j DROP
-A FORWARD -j DROP
-A OUTPUT -m state --state NEW,RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -j DROP
COMMIT
# Completed on Wed Dec 31 13:58:13 2008


방화벽설정 저장한것으로 적용하기

[root@test1 ~]# iptables-restore -c /root/firewall



Hardening SSH


ssh 접근 설정
/etc/ssh/sshd_config

# ListenAddress defines the IP address ssh will
# listen on
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0 -> ListenAddress 10.0.2.10
#Only accept SSH protocol 2 connections
#Protocol 2,1 -> Protocol 2
#Disable root login
PermitRootLogin yes -> PermitRootLogin no
#Disable allowing all system accounts to ssh in,
# only allow certain users (space delimited)
AllowUsers userName1 userName2 userName3
# Change Default port
Port 22 -> Port 2200



File system security

/tmp 설정
/dev/hda2 /tmp ext3 nodev,nosuid, noexec 0 0


루트킷 검사
# Use the wget utility to download the latest
# version of chkrootkit
wget ftp://ftp.pangeia.com.br/pub/seg/pac/chkrootkit.tar.gz
tar -xzvf chkrootkit.tar.gz
cd chkrootkit-version (whatever version is)
./chkrootkit


php.ini 설정

# Edit /usr/local/php/php.ini with your
# favorite editor
# Since you're are going through the trouble of
# hiding PHP files you might as well disable
# this as well
 expose_php = On -> expose_php = Off
# You really don't want users, or worse yet
# an attacker to see error messages
 display_errors = On -> \
    display_erros = Off
# But you do want them logged \
 log_errors = Off -> log_errors = On
# Log to a file
;error_log = filename -> \
     error_log = /var/log/php-err



mysql 설정

# Set the root password
mysqladmin -u root -h localhost password subGen1us
# Once this is done, log in as the root user and
# disable anonymous accounts
mysql -u root -p
# Drop the test database which comes installed
# by default
mysql> drop database test;
# Disable anonymous accounts
mysql> use mysql;
mysql> delete from db where User=’’;
mysql> delete from user where User=’’;
# Change DBA NAME
mysql> update user set user="mydbadmin" \
           where user="root";
mysql> flush privileges;
# Make sure to login again to make sure
# all the changes work
mysql -u mydbadmin -p
password: subGen1us
# Configure /etc/my.cnf for security Uncomment
# the following line to disable TCP connections
# to mysql. As with tomcat this prevents remote
# connections event in the even of the firewall
# even in the even of the firewall rules being
# flushed.

 
 
XSS 관련

php 코드

# Vulnerable Code
<?php
        $userInput = $_GET['input'];
        print $userInput;
?>
# Secure Code
<?php
    $userInput = urlencode($_GET['input']);
    print $userInput;
?>


jsp 코드

  # Vulnerable Code
  public class myServlet extends HttpServlet {
    public static void doGet
               (HttpServletRequest req,
                HttpServletResponse res) {
     // Get User Input
     String userInput = req.getParameter("input");
     // Print User Input to page
     PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
    out.write("<html>");
    out.write(userInput);
    out.write("</html>");
  }
}
# Secure Code
import java.net.URLEncoder;
public class myServlet extends HttpServlet {
   public static void doGet
             (HttpServletRequest req,
              HttpServletResponse res) {
      // Get User Input
      String userInput = req.getParameter("input");
      // URLEncode Input
      userInput =
           URLEncoder.encode(userInput, "UTF-8");
      // Print User Input to page
      PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
      out.write("<html>");
      out.write(userInput);
      out.write("</html>");
  }
}


SQL Injection

# Partial PHP
$query_result = mysql_query
 ( "select * from users where name = \""
     .
    mysql_real_escape_string($user_name)
     .
    "\"" );
# Partial Java, ? is the bind variable
Connection con = (acquire Connection)
PreparedStatement pstmt =
  con.prepareStatement
     ("SELECT * FROM users WHERE name = ?");
pstmt.setString(1, userInput);
ResultSet rset = pstmt.executeQuery()









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WRITTEN BY
김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret
Syntax error on line 28 of /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf:
Cannot load /usr/local/apache/libexec/libphp4.so into server: /usr/local/apache/libexec/libphp4.so: cannot restore segment prot after reloc: Permission denied

--->

chcon -t texrel_shlib_t /usr/local/apache/libexec/libphp4.so

위 명령으로 해결됨.


[root@fileserver libexec]# /usr/local/apache/bin/httpd -t
Syntax OK


^^
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WRITTEN BY
김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret
ctrl+shift+t

탭 이동순서 바꾸기
shfit+ctrl+pgup,pgdown

탭간 이동하기
ctrl + pgup,pgdown

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WRITTEN BY
김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

받은 트랙백이 없고 , 댓글이 없습니다.
secret

httpwatch

서버관리 2015.11.23 11:39

인터넷 익스플로러에서 http 요청과 응답, 헤더 상세 정보, 쿠키 URL, 요청 매개변수,

http 상태코드, 리다이렉트 등을 분석한다

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김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret

[MySQL] 테이블 타입(Heap, MyIsam, InnoDB...) 변경


alter table  이용
기존 생성된 테이블 타입(Heap, MyIsam, InnoDB...) 변경하는 명령어 
 

[테이블의 타입 변경하기]

형식) alter table [테이블명] type=[변경할 타입명]

"변경할 타입명"에는 Heap, MyIsam, InnoDB ...


mysql> alter table mytable type=InnoDB;

"show create table" 명령어로 확인

mysql> show create table mytable;
.... 생략
.... 생략

) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=euckr |



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김병국
유용했던 자료를 기록해 두었습니다. 도움이 되시길~~~ Welcome! I started this blog as a way to give back to all of the other system administrators who have taught me something in the past. Writing these posts brings me a lot of enjoyment and I hope you fun

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secret